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    World Privacy Forum Releases Report on Cloud Computing

    The World Privacy Forum has released a new report (pdf) on cloud computing, “Privacy in the Clouds: Risks to Privacy and Confidentiality from Cloud Computing.” It’s one of the few reports I’ve seen that looks closely at the issues.

    What is cloud computing? The Forum defines cloud computing as “involv[ing] the sharing or storage by users of their own information on remote servers owned or operated by others and accessed through the Internet or other connections. Cloud computing services exist in many variations, including data storage sites, video sites, tax preparation sites, personal health record websites, photography websites, social networking sites, and many more.”

    One important finding in the report: “Legal uncertainties make it difficult to assess the status of information in the cloud as well as the privacy and confidentiality protections available to users. The law badly trails technology, and the application of old law to new technology can be unpredictable. For example, current laws that protect electronic communications may or may not apply to cloud computing communications or they may apply differently to different aspects of cloud computing.”

    More on the issue from the report:

    Generally, an individual is free to share his or her personal information with a cloud provider. For a business, disclosing the personal information of customers or employees, or other business information to a cloud provider is often unrestricted by law because no privacy law or other law applies. For example, privacy laws do not cover most marketing records in the United States. Even when privacy laws apply to particular categories of customer or employee information, disclosure to a cloud provider may not be restricted.

    For a federal agency, various laws may have bearing on the decision to employ a cloud provider. For example, the Privacy Act of 1974 imposes standards for the collection, maintenance, use, and disclosure of personal information. The use of cloud computing for personal information held by a federal agency may violate the Privacy Act of 1974, especially if there is no contractual arrangement between the agency and the cloud provider. If a cloud provider offers services to the public on behalf of agencies, other Privacy Act requirements may apply, as may security obligations under various federal laws and policies. Federal record management and disposal laws may also be relevant.

    This document analyses and illustrates some of the key privacy and confidentiality consequences of cloud computing. No attempt is made to be comprehensive or to consider all potentially relevant laws. This document does not review state laws that may impose stronger or additional protections for personal information. The focus in this analysis is primarily on the privacy and confidentiality consequences of cloud providers located in the United States, with some discussion of international implications.

    Some other findings from the report:

    • For some types of information and some categories of cloud computing users, privacy and confidentiality rights, obligations, and status may change when a user discloses information to a cloud provider. Procedural or substantive barriers may prevent or limit the disclosure of some records to third parties, including cloud computing providers. For example, health record privacy laws may require a formal agreement before any sharing of records is lawful. Other privacy laws may flatly prohibit personal information sharing by some corporate or institutional users. Professional secrecy obligations, such as those imposed on lawyers, may not allow the sharing of client information. Sharing information with a cloud provider may undermine legally recognized evidentiary privileges. Records management and disposal laws may limit the ability of a government agency to use cloud computing for official records.

    • Disclosure and remote storage may have adverse consequences for the legal status of or protections for personal or business information. For example, a trade secret shared with a cloud provider may lose some of its legal protections. When a person stores information with a third party (including a cloud computing provider), the information may have fewer or weaker privacy protections than when the information remains only in the possession of the person. Government agencies and private litigants may be able to obtain information from a third party more easily than from the original owner or creator of the content. A cloud provider might even be compelled to scan or search user records to look for fugitives, missing children, copyright violations, and other information of interest to government or private parties. Remote storage may additionally undermine security or audit requirements. […]

    • Information in the cloud may have more than one legal location at the same time, with differing legal consequences. A cloud provider may, without notice to a user, move the user’s information from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, from provider to provider, or from machine to machine. The legal location of information placed in a cloud could be one or more places of business of the cloud provider, the location of the computer on which the information is stored, the location of a communication that transmits the information from user to provider and from provider to user, a location where the user has communicated or could communicate with the provider, and possibly other locations.

    • Laws could oblige a cloud provider to examine user records for evidence of criminal activity and other matters. Some jurisdictions in the United States require computer technicians to report to police or prosecutors evidence of child pornography that they find when repairing or otherwise servicing computers. To the extent that cloud computing places a diverse collection of user and business information in a single location, it may be tempting for governments to ask or require cloud providers to report on particular types of criminal or offensive behavior or to monitor activities of particular types of users (e.g., convicted sex offenders). Other possibilities include searching for missing children and for music or software copyright violations.

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