To recap: Last year, former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden revealed several surveillance programs by the agency. There was a public outcry and protests and criticism from civil liberty and privacy advocates, among others. The surveillance program that received the most attention concerned surveillance and collection of phone recordsÂ by the NSA. TheÂ Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies (created by President Obama in August after the Snowden revelations) issuedÂ a report (archiveÂ pdf) recommending against the telephone call record database. Federal judges have issued conflicting rulings on the surveillance program.
Today, Obama announced reforms and proposed changes to the NSA surveillance programs, including the call record database surveillance program. The full transcript is here. Obama also issued a “Presidential Policy Directive, PPD-28,” (pdf) concerning signals intelligence activities.
In his speech, Obama acknowledged privacy and civil liberty concerns, but also made clear that: “We cannot prevent terrorist attacks or cyberthreats without some capability to penetrate digital communications, whether itâ€™s to unravel a terrorist plot, to intercept malware that targets a stock exchange, to make sure air traffic control systems are not compromised or to ensure that hackers do not empty your bank accounts. We are expected to protect the American people; that requires us to have capabilities in this field.”
Importantly, Obama said, “For all these reasons, I believe we need a new approach. I am therefore ordering a transition that will end the Section 215 bulk metadata program as it currently exists and establish a mechanism that preserves the capabilities we need without the government holding this bulk metadata.” However, this statement leaves a lot of latitude for how the program would be changed.
In his speech, Obama detailed some immediate changes and proposals:Â
First, I have approved a new presidential directive for our signals intelligence activities both at home and abroad. This guidance will strengthen executive branch oversight of our intelligence activities. It will ensure that we take into account our security requirements, but also our alliances, our trade and investment relationships, including the concerns of American companies, and our commitment to privacy and basic liberties. And we will review decisions about intelligence priorities and sensitive targets on an annual basis so that our actions are regularly scrutinized by my senior national security team.
Second, we will reform programs and procedures in place to provide greater transparency to our surveillance activities and fortify the safeguards that protect the privacy of U.S. persons. Since we began this review, including information being released today, weâ€™ve declassified over 40 opinions and orders of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which provides judicial review of some of our most sensitive intelligence activities, including the Section 702 program targeting foreign individuals overseas and the Section 215 telephone metadata program.
And going forward, Iâ€™m directing the director of national intelligence, in consultation with the attorney general, to annually review for the purposes of declassification any future opinions of the court with broad privacy implications and to report to me and to Congress on these efforts.
To ensure that the court hears a broader range of privacy perspectives, Iâ€™m also calling on Congress to authorize the establishment of a panel of advocates from outside government to provide an independent voice in significant cases before the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.
Third, we will provide additional protections for activities conducted under Section 702, which allows the government to intercept the communications of foreign targets overseas who have information thatâ€™s important for our national security. Specifically, Iâ€™m asking the attorney general and DNI to institute reforms that place additional restrictions on governmentâ€™s ability to retain, search and use in criminal cases communications between Americans and foreign citizens incidentally collected under Section 702.
Fourth, in investigating threats, the FBI also relies on whatâ€™s called national security letters, which can require companies to provide specific and limited information to the government without disclosing the orders to the subject of the investigation. […]
Iâ€™ve therefore directed the attorney general to amend how we use national security letters so that this secrecy will not be indefinite, so that it will terminate within a fixed time unless the government demonstrates a real need for further secrecy. We will also enable communications providers to make public more information than ever before about the orders that they have received to provide data to the government.Â
Also of note in Obama’s speech was the recognition that privacy is under attack not just by government surveillance, by also by corporations:
Third, there was a recognition by all who participated in these reviews that the challenges to our privacy do not come from government alone. Corporations of all shapes and sizes track what you buy, store and analyze our data and use it for commercial purposes. Thatâ€™s how those targeted ads pop up on your computer and your smartphone periodically.