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    Archive for the ‘Children’ Category

    As COPPA Turns 20, What’s Next for Children’s Privacy?

    Monday, October 29th, 2018

    The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act became law in October 1998, and the Federal Trade Commission promulgated its rule concerning the law in the next couple of years. It has been 20 years of ups and downs for privacy protection for children’s data. There continue to be numerous privacy challenges for parents seeking to safeguard their children’s personal information.

    As soon as they are born and are issued identification numbers, children face the risk of identity theft. Such thefts can be undetected for years, until a young adult has reason to use her Social Security Number for a loan or credit card. We have schools tracking children (and college students) with camera surveillance systems or RFID-enabled school uniforms or ID cards. Some schools started using biometric ID systems for students to pay for their lunches. There are concerns about tracking apps such as ClassDojo, which can be used by teachers and parents to monitor students’ progress.

    The FTC marked the 20th anniversary by noting it has made changes to its Rule over the years: “by amending the Rule to address innovations that affect children’s privacy – social networking, online access via smartphone, and the availability of geolocation information, to name just a few. After hosting a national workshop and considering public comments, we announced changes to the Rule in 2013 that expanded the types of COPPA-covered information to include photos, video, or audio files that contain a child’s image or voice.” Read more »

    In Schools, Camera Use Grows Beyond Security Into Evaluating Student Performance

    Friday, July 27th, 2018

    Security in school has increasingly included surveillance of schools. Previously, we discussed some schools using RFID-enabled school uniforms or cards to track students. There’s also been discussion of the use of video surveillance systems, also called CCTV for closed-circuit television, in schools. As the installation of such surveillance systems in K-12 grades and colleges and universities became widespread, officials said the systems were for improved security and to be used by school security or police. But video surveillance has begun spreading beyond security in some schools.

    Several years ago, ten schools in the United Kingdom began using facial-recognition camera surveillance systems to make sure students “have turned up, records whether they were on time or late and keeps an accurate roll call,” reported the Daily Mail. And earlier this year, India’s capital of Delhi announced that it “said CCTV will be installed in all government schools within three months” and “Parents in India’s capital will soon be able to watch their children in the classroom in real time, using a mobile phone app,” reported BBC News. (And several schools in India have used RFID technology to track students, including for attendance logs.)

    But an even more intimate use of camera surveillance in classrooms is being used in China. People’s Daily Online reports:

    The “intelligent classroom behavior management system” used at Hangzhou No. 11 High School incorporates a facial recognition camera that scans the classroom every 30 seconds. The camera is designed to log six types of behaviors by the students: reading, writing, hand raising, standing up, listening to the teacher, and leaning on the desk. It also records the facial expressions of the students and logs whether they look happy, upset, angry, fearful or disgusted.

    Read more »

    Children Are Vulnerable to Identity Theft as Soon as They Get ID Numbers

    Tuesday, February 20th, 2018

    In 2013, a man stole the name and Social Security Number of a child who died soon after his birth in 1974. “His new, clean record helped [Shawn] Gover got a job in 2016 as head of finances for a golf club in Powhatan, Va. Then he stole $33,557. The fake identity also helped him buy a Sig Sauer semiautomatic pistol despite his felony conviction,” the Washington Post reports. Recently, Gover, 47, was caught and recently sentenced to four years in prison on firearms and identity theft charges. Unfortunately, the theft of a child’s identity, and its use to facilitate fraud or other crimes, is not uncommon. And it can be easy to find and buy the SSNs. Researchers at Terbium Labs recently discovered a cache of children’s SSNs for sale online.

    From the moment an infant receives her Social Security Number in the weeks after her birth, she is vulnerable to identity theft. Such thefts can be undetected for years, until a young adult attempts to apply for student or car loans or a credit card and learns someone has been using his name and SSN for years. (Identity theft is common for all ages, according to federal statistics. The latest figures from the Bureau of Justice Statistics found, “An estimated 17.6 million persons, or about 7 percent of U.S. residents age 16 or older, were victims of at least one incident of identity theft in 2014.”)

    In a 2011 child identity theft report, Carnegie Mellon University’s CyLab found: “4,311 or 10.2% of the children in the report had someone else using their Social Security number – 51 times higher than the 0.2% rate for adults in the same population.” And: “The youngest victim was five months old; 303 victims were under the age of five.” The report “is based on identity protection scans on 42,232 children (age 18 and under) in the U.S during 2009-2010. This pool of 42,232 child identities includes everyone under 18 in a database of over 800,000 identity records.” And credit-reporting agency Experian has said it “handles 25,000-30,000 fraud cases each year and approximately 17% were targeted at children. According to Michael Bruemmer, Vice President of Consumer Protection for Experian, child identity fraud or theft will affect 25% of kids before turning 18.” Read more »

    What If the Rules About Newborn Blood Screenings Changed?

    Thursday, October 26th, 2017

    There has been an ongoing privacy and ethics debate over the unauthorized or undisclosed use of newborns’ blood samples for purposes other than the standard disease-screening, which includes about 30 conditions. Now, there’s a trial study, called BabySeq, from Brigham and Women’s Hospital that “uses genomic sequencing to screen for about 1,800 conditions, including some cancers,” CBS Miami reports.

    The privacy questions are clear: What happens to the DNA data — who keeps it, in what form, for how long — and who has access to it? The participants in the study have chosen to participate with, presumably, complete knowledge of the answers to these questions. But consider if the screening of 1,800 conditions, rather than the current 30, became the legal standard. This is a significant amount of highly personal information and there are substantial privacy issues.

    BabySeq co-director, Dr. Robert Green, has raised some of these issues. “We can’t predict what kind of discrimination is going to be occurring by the time your child grows up,” Green said. “We can’t predict whether there’s some sort of privacy breaches, this information gets out and is used against your child in some sort of future scenario. And we, most importantly, we can’t predict the information’s accurate.” Read more »

    You Could Be Penalized for Refusing to Give Genetic Data to Your Employer

    Thursday, March 16th, 2017

    In 2008, President George W. Bush signed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (Pub. L. 110-233). GINA restricts the collection and use of genetic information in a number of ways. GINA prohibits health insurance providers and employers from requiring genetic testing. Under the federal law, genetic data cannot be used to determine insurance premiums, eligibility for insurance, or employment.

    States have also passed laws to protect individuals’ genetic privacy. Shortly after the passage of GINA, Illinois passed what would become Public Act 095-0927 (pdf), “An Act concerning health,” which strengthened privacy protections already in place under the Illinois Genetic Information Privacy Act of 1998. And in 2011, California Gov. Jerry Brown (D) signed SB 559, the California Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (CalGINA) (pdf). Going beyond the federal GINA, CalGINA also prohibits genetic discrimination in housing, mortgage lending, employment, health insurance coverage, life insurance coverage, education, public accommodations, and elections.

    These laws are meant to protect employees’ privacy from employer access and to shield them from discrimination based on their genetic data, but the federal GINA could be undermined if a bill being considered in Congress becomes law. Read more »

    Colleges, Universities Increasingly Review Applicants’ Social Media Postings

    Thursday, December 11th, 2014

    I’ve written before about how postings on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and other social-media sites have been used against individuals. Such sites have been used to gather evidence in trials against jurors and defendants, in divorce cases, against employees (which can lead to lawsuits), politicians and high school students.

    We’ve seen it affect applicants to jobs in the United States and abroad. For a while, there was increasing focus on the practice by some employers of requiring job applicants to hand over their passwords or allow access to their private accounts on social-networking sites in order to gather personal data when the social-networking profiles are closed to the public. States including CaliforniaIllinois and Maryland passed laws to protect employees from such prying by employers; Maryland’s law includes exemptions for employers for some investigations into possible wrongdoing by employees.

    Recently, the New York Times reported that students are scrubbing their accounts in anticipation of colleges and universities reviewing the social-media postings of applicants. The social-media searches by colleges and universities have been occurring for several years. Six years ago, education services firm Kaplan surveyed 320 college and university admissions officers and found “one out of ten admissions officers has visited an applicant’s social networking Web site as part of the admissions decision-making process.”  Read more »