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    Archive for the ‘Cameras’ Category

    License-plate-reader Technology Is Proliferating, And Questions Remain

    Wednesday, June 28th, 2017

    A couple of years ago, we discussed the increasing use license-plate-recognition camera technology and the possible privacy, civil liberty and security implications about the surveillance tech used to gather and record information on drivers’ movements. At the time, we noted that license-plate-reader technology (also called automated license plate readers, ALPRs), like other surveillance systems, has the ability to create a profile of an individual using personal, possibly sensitive data. Now, the technology is in even more jurisdictions nationwide, and the privacy questions remain.

    Two examples of the proliferation of the license-plate-reader technology are in Rhode Island and Tennessee. In Rhode Island, state legislators are considering HB 5531, “An Act Relating to Motor and Other Vehicles — Electronic Confirmation and Compliance System,” which would create a state-wide license-plate-reader network to identify and fine uninsured drivers. The chief sponsor is Rep. Robert Jacquard (D), who “said he has made a number of changes to address fears of growing state surveillance and concerns the cameras could be used to expand highway tolling,” reports the Providence Journal.

    The ACLU of Rhode Island testified (pdf) against the bill, noting “this legislation would nevertheless facilitate the capture and storage of real time location information on every Rhode Islander on the road, with no guidance as to how this information is to be used, at the benefit of a third-party corporation.” ACLU-RI wants the state to “implement clear and specific restrictions on the use of this technology, particularly by law enforcement” and notes such restrictions are included in HB 5989, whose chief sponsor is Rep. John G. Edwards (D). Read more »

    Be aware of privacy issues as your A.I. assistant learns more about you

    Friday, May 26th, 2017

    Update on June 6, 2017: Apple has introduced its own A.I. assistant device, the HomePod. Notably, the company says the device will only collect data after the wake command. Also, the data will be encrypted when sent to Apple’s servers. However, privacy questions remain, as with other A.I. assistants. 

    Artificial intelligence assistants, such as Amazon’s Echo or Google’s Home devices (or Apple’s Siri or Microsoft’s Cortana services) have been proliferating, and they can gather a lot of personal information on the individuals or families who use them. A.I. assistants are part of the “Internet of Things,” a computerized network of physical objects. In IoT, sensors and data-storage devices embedded in objects interact with Web services.

    I’ve discussed the privacy issues associated with IoT generally (relatedly, the Government Accountability Office recently released a report on the privacy and security problems that can arise in IoT devices), but I want to look closer at the questions raised by A.I. assistants. The personal data retained or transmitted on these A.I. services and devices could include email, photos, sensitive medical or other information, financial data, and more.

    And law enforcement officials could access this personal data. Earlier this year, there was a controversy concerning the data possibly collected by an Amazon Echo. The Washington Post explained, “The Echo is equipped with seven microphones and responds to a ‘wake word,’ most commonly ‘Alexa.’ When it detects the wake word, it begins streaming audio to the cloud, including a fraction of a second of audio before the wake word, according to the Amazon website. A recording and transcription of the audio is logged and stored in the Amazon Alexa app and must be manually deleted later.”  Read more »

    It’s Becoming Easier to Have Detailed Secret Surveillance from a Distance

    Wednesday, November 23rd, 2016

    The idea of secret surveillance from a distance isn’t new. For centuries, there have been undercover agents. Subsequently, there came hidden cameras and microphones. But there were limitations to this secret surveillance — such as the physical constraints of a human or camera located far from the person being watched. As surveillance technology has become more sophisticated, however, it is becoming easier to identify, watch, listen to, and judge people from a distance.

    The judgment portion is, in part, based on biometric facial-recognition technology that incorporates expression recognition. For the unseen eyes, it’s no longer just about identifying a person, but also about watching their emotional responses. This type of facial-recognition tech gained attention a few years ago when Microsoft filed a patent for technology that would track individuals’ emotions and target advertising and marketing as based upon a person’s mood.

    “Degrees of emotion can vary — a user can be ‘very angry’ or ‘slightly angry’ — as well as the duration of the mood. Advertisers can target people ‘happy for one hour’ or ‘happy for 24 hours,’” the Toronto Star reported in 2012. Four years later, the mood-identification technology can be bought off the shelf, as NBC News explains in a story about “a new immersive experience for moviegoers.” Read more »

    When Software Can Read Your Emotions as You Walk Down the Street

    Wednesday, April 22nd, 2015

    I’ve written before about the increasing use of “digital signage.” What is “digital signage”? Most people have heard of the term connected with billboards or other screens that have cameras (and facial-recognition technology) to watch people watching ads in order to target advertising toward individuals. The data-gathering and surveillance practices raise substantial privacy questions.

    The Los Angeles Times reported on the expansion of these digital billboards and their use of facial-recognition biometric technology in casinos, Chicago-area bars and more. USA Today and the New York Times have detailed safety problems that can arise from these digital billboards. BBC News has reported on the use of digital billboards in the United Kingdom. The Wall Street Journal has reported on digital signage use in Japan.

    Now, Wired reports on the more widespread use of software from the artificial intelligence startup Affectiva that “will read your emotional reactions” in real time. “Already, CBS has used it to determine how new shows might go down with viewers. And during the 2012 Presidential election, [Affectiva's chief science officer Rana el Kaliouby’s] team experimented with using it to track a sample of voters during a debate. Read more »

    License-plate-reader Technology Continues to Raise Privacy, Civil Liberty Questions

    Thursday, March 26th, 2015

    As the use of license-plate-recognition camera technology  to gather and record drivers’ movements started becoming widespread in the United States, people asked a number of questions about the privacy, civil liberty and security implications about the surveillance technology.  Last year, the Center for Investigative Reporting looked into privacy questions concerning the use of license-plate readers and found that “a leading maker of license-plate readers wants to merge the vehicle identification technology with other sources of identifying information.” A couple of years ago, the American Civil Liberties Union released a report (pdf) on license-plate readers and how they are used as surveillance devices.

    And law enforcement is concerned about how such tech affects privacy rights, as well. In 2009, the International Association of Chiefs of Police issued a report on license-plate-recognition technology and said, “Recording driving habits could implicate First Amendment concerns. [...] Mobile LPR units could read and collect the license plate numbers of vehicles parked at addiction counseling meetings, doctors’ offices, health clinics, or even staging areas for political protests.” The privacy and civil liberty questions have led to the cancellation of some license-plate-recognition surveillance programs, including ones in Boston and by the Department of Homeland Security.

    One of the biggest questions is: What happens to all the data on innocent individuals? Often, we don’t know what the restrictions are on the collection and use of the data. We have learned some information about what some groups do with the data. Last year, the Washington Post reported that commercial databases gather such location data to sell. In 2013, the ACLU review of license-plate-reader camera technology found that “the approach in Pittsburg, Calif., is typical: a police policy document there says that license plate readers can be used for ‘any routine patrol operation or criminal investigation,’ adding, ‘reasonable suspicion or probable cause is not required.’ [...] As New York’s Scarsdale Police Department put it in one document, the use of license plate readers ‘is only limited by the officer’s imagination.’” In 2011, the Washington Post reported that Virginia used the license-plate scanning technology for tax collection.

    Now, as a result of the public records request, Ars Technica has received the entire license-plate-reader dataset of the Oakland Police Department, “including more than 4.6 million reads of over 1.1 million unique plates between December 23, 2010 and May 31, 2014.” And it’s interesting to see what personal information can be gleaned from the surveillance data.

    Read more »

    Privacy, Safety Problems with Use of Surveillance Gear on Romantic Partners

    Thursday, January 15th, 2015

    Recently, the Independent in the UK reported on the use of spyware by abusers to track and control their victims. “Helplines and women’s refuge charities have reported a dramatic rise in the use of spyware apps to eavesdrop on the victims of domestic violence via their mobiles and other electronic devices, enabling abusers clandestinely to read texts, record calls and view or listen in on victims in real time without their knowledge.”

    A 2009 report about stalking from the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics found: “Electronic monitoring was used to stalk 1 in 13 victims. Video or digital cameras were equally likely as listening devices or bugs to be used to electronically monitor victims (46% and 42%). Global positioning system (GPS) technology comprised about a tenth of the electronic monitoring of stalking victims.” (Here’s the 2012 update.) The U.S. National Network to End Domestic Violence has a paper about how abusers and stalkers use technology to control and harass their victims. Read more »